Intensive occupation ceased with increasing aridity, although sporadic visits occurred during the Holocene.
It has much in common with electron spin resonance (ESR).
For periods or areas for which no textual evidence is available, relative chronologies have to be established and these are mostly based on pottery sequences and typology.
Relative chronology is also based on the application of the principles of stratigraphy and .
The technique enables trapped electrons within bone and shell to be measured without the heating that thermoluminescence requires; the number of trapped electrons indicates the age of the specimen.
There are a number of factors that may cause errors with the method.
The amount of thermoluminescence from a heated sample is used to determine the number of trapped electrons resulting from the absorption of alpha radiation.