Speed dating wc et consquences

Two important sources of urban heat are those associated with the effect of large urban structures on the radiation budget and energy storage and those from the heat generated as a consequence of anthropogenic activity.The former forcing will remain relatively constant, but a WC will appear in the latter.This rural warming can lead to an early morning urban 'cool island' in some cities due to the atmospheric boundary layer being deeper over the urban area, reducing the apparent early morning heating compared to the rural environment (Oke 1982, Theeuwes 2015).However other factors including shading in urban canyons, leading to a smaller surface area of accessible insolation, greater total urban surface area (compared to flat surface) and enhanced early morning absorption of radiation by urban materials (e.g. This means that the urban heat island (UHI) intensity undergoes a marked diurnal variation with the largest difference typically 3–5 h after sunset and smallest, which may sometimes be negative, from early morning to mid-afternoon.Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence.

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The three major sources of anthropogenic heat, closely related to energy consumption, are transportation, buildings and industry, as explained by Sailor (2011).city size, location, types of local circulations; Bell and Rosenfeld 2008).Therefore, the net effect of aerosol on surface temperature is highly variable and under debate.The relative importance of these factors differs between cities, strongly influenced by background climate.Diurnal rhythms also present perspectives on anthropogenic influences.Understanding the characteristics of the UHI is of considerable importance due to the rises in urban population (table S1).

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